Breast Cancer: It’s Not Just One Disease

By Emily Young, Public Health Educator

Although often thought of as just one disease, there are many types of breast cancer. A woman’s treatment options and prognosis are dependent upon the type of breast cancer that’s diagnosed. In order to determine this, all tumors are tested for estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors. Breast tumors that have estrogen and/or progesterone receptors can be treated with hormone therapy. Anti-HER2 targeted therapies are used to treat tumors that are positive for HER2 receptors.

In the U.S., about 15-20% of breast cancers are classified as being triple negative. ThisTriple-Negative Breast Cancer, CDC means that the breast tumor has very few or no receptors at all for estrogen, progesterone, and HER2. Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) has a tendency to be more aggressive than other breast cancer types and is more likely to have an earlier recurrence that usually spreads to other parts of the body. TNBC seems to occur more in younger women, African-American women, and women who have the BRCA1 gene mutation.

Breast cancer may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. With early detection breast cancer is usually easier to treat and often has better outcomes. A mammogram is the best test to find breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt a doctor during a clinical breast exam. Screening guidelines recommend that women between the ages of 50 and 74 have a mammogram every two years. Women between the ages of 40 and 49 should check with their healthcare provider to see if a mammogram is recommended for them.

Free mammograms are available through the Onondaga County Cancer Services Program (CSP) for women between the ages of 40 and 64 who do not have health insurance or experience other barriers to completing their screenings.  Services are available at many healthcare provider sites throughout the city of Syracuse and Onondaga County. Call 315-435-3653 or visit the CSP website at to register for your free mammogram.

Learn more about breast cancer and current federal screening guidelines at:

Shake, Shake, Shake?

By Roseanne Jones, MS, RDN, CDN

As a Registered Dietitian, I do like to “shake things up” while I am working but the past couple of months, I did a lot less shakin’!
Let me explain.

Recently, I have been working with Chef Bill Collins, a Culinary Specialist at Syracuse University, to gather chefs and cooks in our community for salt-reduction training. Chef Bill Collins FALK Health Department Flavor and Savor Training SCSD Nutrition and Food Service Staff 2018Reducing salt in our diet is important because it may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and heart disease. Too much sodium (salt) increases the risk of heart disease, which is the number one cause of death in the United States. Chef Collins demonstrated how to decrease salt in the foods we eat in four really easy ways:

  • buy foods that are low in sodium (salt)
  • dilute the sodium by increasing the volume by adding ingredients to prepared foods such as chopped vegetables, plain yogurt, fresh fruit, tofu… the list goes on!
  • add “flavor bursts”  to your food with herbs, spices, citrus, garlic, and onions
  • decrease the portion sizes of your food (instead of a 12-inch tortilla use an 8-inch tortilla).

Salt is hiding in foods. It’s true!

Chef Bill Collins FALK Health Department Flavor and Savor Training SCSD Nutrition and Food Service Staff 2018
It’s true that most of the salt we consume comes from the foods we buy pre-made from the grocery store and from restaurants…..not the salt shaker.  The problem with buying prepared foods is that you can’t take the salt out of the existing food.   So, it is a good idea to cook from scratch when you can because you can control the salt.  When that isn’t possible, buy items that are fresh and lower in sodium!

I have the answer for you!

Read your food labels so that you really know what is in the product, look for  “low-sodium “ products, cook at home more often, cook from scratch (because you can limit the salt), and eat plenty of vegetables and fruits. Learn more by checking out the training!

Check out the video below of the training with Chef Collins!

Film Students Team Up with the Health Department to Promote Safe Sleep for Infants

By Lisa GreenMills, Program Coordinator, Syracuse Healthy Start
and Kara Verbanic, Public Health Educator

Finding out you’re pregnant can be life-changing news, and along with all the congratulations and well wishes from family and friends, new parents also get bombarded with plenty of unsolicited advice! It can range from helpful, to mildly amusing, to outright absurd! One thing we all hear though is “get used to not sleeping!” It really is hard to understand the exhaustion you’ll feel as a new parent until you actually experience it firsthand. Those first few weeks and months can be so difficult.

During those initial sleepless nights, friends and family might give you even more advice on getting your baby to sleep. You might hear that babies sleep better snuggled up with their parents, lying on their bellies, or surrounded by cute stuffed animals and blankets. Maybe back when you were a child, you even slept in bed with your parents. Times have changed though, and now that we know better, we can do better to protect our new baby. We now know that sleeping with an infant is very dangerous, and many babies have accidentally suffocated under pillows, blankets, between couch cushions, or their own parents’ bodies.

The fact is, every year right here in Onondaga County, infants are dying in unsafe sleep environments. It’s sad to even think about, but it’s important for every family to understand the risk factors and learn what they can do to help keep their babies safe. That’s why staff at the Onondaga County Health Department’s Healthy Families Division recently partnered with a team of students from the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University to develop a Public Service Announcement (PSA) urging new parents to practice the ABCs of Safe Sleep, and most of all, to stay strong when it comes to infant sleep! Even though it’s difficult, Safe Sleep is always the best option.

Check out the video the students created and take a minute to learn the ABCs of Safe Sleep:

  • Baby should sleep ALONE
  • Put Baby to sleep on their BACK
  • Put Baby to sleep in a CRIB.

Safe Sleep Tips:

  • Place your baby on his or her back every time your baby sleeps (including naps).
  • Use a crib with a firm mattress that fits tight, without any space between the mattress and the side of the crib.
  • Babies should never sleep on soft surfaces (such as adult beds, sofas, armchairs, or pillows). Not even for a nap.
  • Breastfeeding is recommended and is associated with a reduced risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
  • Place your baby to sleep in the same room as you but not in the same bed, for at least the first 6 months, ideally for the first year.
  • Keep soft objects or loose bedding out of the crib. This includes pillows, blankets, and bumper pads. Bumper pads should not be used in cribs. Wedges and positioners should not be used.
  • Do not overheat the baby or bundle the baby with lots of blankets. Instead, dress the baby in a wearable blanket sleeper at bedtime.
  • Do not smoke during pregnancy or after the baby is born. And, do not let anyone else smoke around your baby.
  • Avoid alcohol and illicit drug use during pregnancy and after birth.
  • Offer a pacifier at nap time and bedtime. Offer pacifiers to breastfed infants only after breastfeeding is firmly established.
  • Car seats and other sitting devices are not recommended for routine sleep.
  • Remember to tell family, friends, and child care providers about infant safe sleep tips so that your baby sleeps safely every time.
  • Make sure your baby has a safe place to sleep when visiting or traveling.

Healthy Families, a program of the Onondaga County Health Department, offers services for infants, children, new moms, and dads. Free and confidential home visits are available at their home or another location that works for them. For more information, call 315.435.2000 or visit

Special thanks to the faculty and students of S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications for the production of this video:
Robert Emerson, Adjunct Professor ─Television, Radio, and Film
Students: Jillian Mitchell, Christopher Sechler, Marisa Torelli-Pedevska, Emily Campbell, and Cameron Hill

The Pink Shawl Initiative: A Story of Joining Together for Breast Cancer Screening

By Emily Young, Public Health Educator

For many years, the Cancer Services Program (CSP) has collaborated with the Onondaga Nation to screen local Native American women for breast cancer. This partnership has grown and evolved in many ways over the years. It is true that breast cancer rates do tend to be lower in American Indian/Alaska Native women when compared to other ethnic groups, but mammography screening rates among these women are also somewhat lower than rates among other non-Hispanic groups of women, including white, black, and Asian.

When the CSP first began working with the Onondaga Nation, we had access to a mobile mammography unit. The unit was transported directly to the Onondaga Nation Health Clinic and set up inside of the building, which allowed women access to Free Mammogramstheir mammograms at a location that was both convenient and familiar to them. Due to various factors, the use of the mobile mammography unit was eventually discontinued. As a result, the number of Native American women in Onondaga County who received breast cancer screenings through this program dropped dramatically over the next several years. These women no longer had a familiar and convenient location to have their mammograms and the sense of community that the mobile mammography program had offered to them was unique and difficult to replace.

Recognizing this, the CSP initiated contact with the Onondaga Nation’s clan mothers to discuss strategies to increase breast cancer screening rates among their Native women. Out of these discussions the “Onondaga Nation Pink Shawl Initiative” was created. This initiative is a collaborative effort between the CSP, the Onondaga Nation, and Wellspring Breast Care Center at Upstate University Hospital-Community Campus. It encompasses both education and the provision of breast cancer screening services to women of the Onondaga Nation. Promotional materials were designed with culturally appropriate artwork that was obtained from a well-known Native American artist. Now this artwork is easily identifiable among women within the Onondaga Nation community and has been extremely successful at bringing awareness to the availability of this mammogram program.

Through the “Pink Shawl Initiative”, three to four mammogram clinics are scheduled at Wellspring Breast Care Center each year. The clinics, held on Saturday mornings, are open only to Native American women.  We encourage women to schedule their mammogram appointments around the same time as other family members and friends who also need their mammograms so they can come together. This practice promotes a sense of community which is a very important part of the Native American culture. So far in 2017, approximately 60 Native American women have been screened for breast cancer through the “Onondaga Nation Pink Shawl Initiative”. The CSP looks forward to continued collaboration with our partners to provide these breast cancer screening clinics for our community’s Native American women.

Learn more about breast cancer and current federal screening guidelines at:



Carbon Monoxide Alarms Save Lives

By Erika Frye, Environmental Health Technician II             

In October of 2014, the Onondaga County Healthy Neighborhood Program (HNP) visited a family who lives on Garfield Avenue in Syracuse. The HNP is a program that provides health and safety related services to people who live in the City of Syracuse. At the visit on Garfield Avenue, the HNP completed an assessment and provided the family with a carbon monoxide detector. As part of the HNP’s collaboration with the Syracuse Green and Healthy Home Initiative (GHHI) the program visited the home again in December of 2016 and provided the family with another carbon monoxide alarm for another level of the home. In June of this year, the family discovered just how valuable these detectors are.

On June 11, homeowner Kimberly White said that the carbon monoxide detector in her kitchen began to beep. Kimberly said, “Around 9:00 our carbon monoxide detector went off in the kitchen and my husband said that it was probably the battery and I agreed. Twenty minutes later another alarm, one that was still in a bag in the hall closet, went off and I said now I am going to call the Fire Department.” The family evacuated their home and made the call.

The detectors that alarmed were the ones given to the family by the HNP. The family had not installed the second detector yet, but HNP staff always activates the detectors as they are given out so they are operable.

Kimberly continued, “The Fire Department came and picked up 45 ppm [of carbon monoxide] on their handheld detectors so we had to stay out. National Grid came and tagged the dryer and said it had been improperly vented.”

When I was speaking with Kimberly she was very thankful that the HNP took the time to visit her home and to educate her and her family about home health hazards, including carbon monoxide. Kimberly told me that she was “just glad we had detectors because they [the Syracuse Fire Department] said that at these levels, in 2 to 4 weeks we could have all died.”

Kimberly also wanted to thank our program for all that we do. She believes that the services provided by the HNP saved her family, but I explained that it was also because she listened and knew what to do. The HNP gave her the tools and she did the rest.

Kimberly White and her family stand in the kitchen where the carbon monoxide alarm went off.

The products that we provide improve the health and safety of the home, but I believe the education that we provide is just as valuable to our clients.

If you would like to learn more about the Healthy Neighborhood Program or the Green and Healthy Homes Initiative please call 315-435-5431.

STDs: You Don’t Always See the Signs

By Melanie Drotar, Public Information Specialist
and Karyn Johnson, Public Health Educator

The Onondaga County Health Department recently collaborated with students at S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University on a video public service announcement (PSA) project. It was a perfect partnership: students produced these videos for course credit while gaining real world experience with a government agency, and the Health Department—which does not have in-house video production expertise—is now able to use these professional-quality videos to get important public health messages out to the community.

The Newhouse professor and students met with a team from the Health Department early in the process to gather information and discuss the Health Department’s goals. The students then presented their concepts to the team and went to work writing the storyboards and scripts, recruiting actors, then shooting and editing the videos. This all resulted in high quality video PSAs that can be used for Health Department promotions.

The first videos in the series deal with two priorities in Onondaga County:

  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
  2. Opioid Addiction

April is Sexually Transmitted Disease Awareness Month, so this month’s article features the video PSA entitled “STDs: You Don’t Always See the Signs”:

This video captures people’s initial reaction to signs printed with the names of numerous STDs. Individuals infected with an STD may not experience any physical signs or symptoms. That is why it is so important to step up and get tested!

Anyone who is sexually active can get an STD.  The good news is STDs are preventable and treatable. Use the following tips to protect yourself and your partner:

  • The only sure way to prevent STDs is to not have sex. This means not having vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
  • Using a condom correctly every time you have sex can help prevent STDs; however, some STDs, including herpes and HPV, can be spread even when using a condom.
  • Reducing your number of partners can help reduce the spread of STDs. By having sex with only one person who has been recently tested, you can reduce your risk for getting an STD.
  • Getting an HPV vaccine can help protect you from HPV, a virus that can cause some cancers and genital warts. The vaccine is recommended for boys and girls 11 to 12 years of age, but can be given to women through age 26 and men through age 21.
  • Talking with your partner about preventing STDs before having sex is important. It may be uncomfortable, but protecting your health is up to you!
  • Get tested: just because you or your partner has no symptoms does not mean you are STD free. Getting tested is the only way to know. If you have a positive STD test, make sure you follow through with your treatment to prevent getting re-infected or infecting others.

Get peace of mind. Get checked. There are many options for STD testing. Some people choose to go to their doctor while others prefer to come to the Onondaga County Health Department STD Center. The STD Center provides confidential STD testing and treatment.  For more information about the STD Center, call (315) 435-3236 or visit our website.

Special thanks to the faculty and students of S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications for the production of this video:
Robert Emerson, Adjunct Professor Television, Radio, and Film
Students: Fatima Bangura, Adam Ganley, Laura Hegstetter, Rachel Kucharski, and Maxine Williams

Get Screened to Prevent Colorectal Cancer

By Emily Young, Public Health Educator, Cancer Services Program
Onondaga County Health Department

 John* has been experiencing colorectal symptoms for a few months yet he hasn’t seen a doctor because he doesn’t have health insurance. He works full-time but his company doesn’t offer health insurance coverage. John is 55-years-old and knows that he should have had a colonoscopy when he turned 50, but he put it off because he couldn’t afford to pay the out-of-pocket cost.

John finally decided to call his primary care doctor for an appointment. His rectal bleeding and abdominal pain was getting worse and his stool was starting to look black in color. When John saw Dr. Smith*, he told her about his symptoms and how long they had been going on. Dr. Smith asked John if he had any family history of colorectal cancer or pre-cancerous polyps. John didn’t know of anyone in his family ever having colorectal cancer. Dr. Smith asked John when his last colonoscopy was. John reluctantly told Dr. Smith that he had never had a colonoscopy because he doesn’t have health insurance. Then Dr. Smith gave John some good news. She told him about the Onondaga County Cancer Services Program (CSP) which could cover the cost of his colorectal cancer screening because he didn’t have health insurance. John couldn’t believe there was a program that could help him get screened and find out what was causing his colorectal symptoms.

Dr. Smith gave John the telephone number. John called and spoke to the program’s Case Manager who quickly got him set up for a colonoscopy at a convenient location. During John’s

Colorectal cancer can be prevented through the removal of pre-cancerous polyps!

colonoscopy, the doctor found and removed five pre-cancerous polyps. The doctor told John he would need to follow up with another colonoscopy in three to five years. John was very thankful to Dr. Smith for telling him about the CSP and was so grateful for the peace of mind knowing that he had help with his colorectal cancer screening when he did not have the financial means to do so himself.


When was the last time you had a colorectal cancer screening? Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for men and women between the ages of 50 and 75 years old using high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. Colorectal cancer can be prevented through the removal of pre-cancerous polyps in the colon and/or rectum. For men and women without health insurance or those who have other barriers to accessing screenings, the CSP provides free colorectal cancer screening. Uninsured men and women may call 435-3653 to register for their free screening.

For more information on colorectal cancer and free colorectal screenings for uninsured men and women please visit: or

*Names changed for confidentiality purposes.